Research & Development

4Coral: Ocean Acidification and Global Warming Research Project

We are very proud to announce our first peer-reviewed publication from the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded research grant in PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE.

Coral energy reserves and calcification in a high-CO2 world at two temperatures

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075049

Publication date: October 11, 2013

This had been an amazing experience and to be a part of it and to be one of the Authors on this project is something I am very proud of and would like to share with all of you. 

PLOS ONE is an open access publication so you can download and read the publication at no cost. Please see the link below and click on it to see the paper. 

Special thanks to Andrea Grottoli (The Ohio State University), who contacted me, and brought me in to be a part of this project. Reef Systems Coral Farm's dedication to farming, propagation and the sustainability of corals allowed us to be a part of this valuable research. I enjoyed working with everyone on the NSF funded research grant and to be part of something much larger than me. To see the dedication in students and professors on something that is so important was very exciting inspirational. I am very fortunate to have been involved in this project and would like to thank everyone who took part in research. 

Thank you,

Verena Schoepf, Andréa G. Grottoli, Yohei Matsui, Justin H. Baumann 
School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America
Mark E. Warner, Kenneth D. Hoadley, D. Tye Pettay               
School of Marine Science and Policy, University of Delaware, Lewes, Delaware, United States of America                

Wei-Jun Cai,  Xinping Hu, Qian Li, Hui Xu, Yongchen Wang               
Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America                

Todd F. Melman               
Reef Systems Coral Farm, New Albany, Ohio, United States of America





With increasing levels of carbon dioxide accumulating in the atmosphere and moving into marine systems, the world's oceans are becoming more acidic, scientists have shown.  To address the growing concern for acidifying marine systems, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded 21 grants under the Ocean Acidification theme of its Climate Research Investment Included among them are Ohio State University's Dr. Andrea Grottoli ( and her team (Dr. Mark Warnere, University of Delaware; Dr. Wei-Jun Cai, University of Georgia; Todd Melman, Reef Systems Coral Farm, OH). Grottoli's project will investigate the possible synergistic and antagonistic effects of elevated temperature, carbon dioxide, and nutrients on the physiology and internal calcifying chemistry of several species of corals in a laboratory setting. Research tools include the assessment of coral energy reserves and metabolic demand, symbiotic algal physiology and molecular diversity, coral calcification, and direct measurement of the internal coral pH and carbonate concentration via microprobes.


Other Co-Authored Publications

Grottoli A, Dalcin Martins P, Wilkins M, Johnston M, Warner M, Cai W, Melman T, Hoadley K, Pettay T, Levas S, Schoepf V. 2018. Coral physiology and microbiome dynamics under combined warming and ocean acidification. PLOS | ONE.

Levas S, Grottoli A, Warner M, Cai W, Bauer J, Schoepf V, Baumann J, Matsui Y, Gearing C, Melman T, Hoadley K, Pettay D, Hu X, Li Q, Xu H, Wang Y. 2015. Organic carbon fluxes mediated by corals at elevated pCO2 and temperature. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser. Vol. 519: 153-164.

Schoepf V, Grottoli A, Warner M, Cai W, Melman T, Hoadley K, Pettay D, Hu X, Li Q, Xu H, Wang Y, Matsui Y, Baumann J. 2013. Coral Energy Reserves and Calcification in a High-CO2 World at Two Temperatures. PLOS | ONE. Volume 8 | Issue 10.

Schoepf V, Hu X, Holcomb M, Cai W, Li Q, Wang Y, Xu H, Warner M, Melman T, Hoadley K, Pettay D, Matsui Y, Baumann J, Grottoli A. 2016. Coral calcification under environmental change: a direct comparison of the alkalinity anomaly and buoyant weight techniques. Coral Reefs. Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 13-25.

Cai W, Ma Y, Hopkinson B, Grottoli A, Warner M, Ding Q, Hu X, Yuan X, Schoepf V, Xu H, Han C, Melman T, Hoadley K, Pettay D, Matsui Y, Baumann J, Levas S, Ying Y, Wang Y. 2016. Microelectrode characterization of coral daytime interior pH and carbonate chemistry. Nature Communications.

Hoadley K, Pettay D, Grottoli A, Cai W, Melman T, Schoepf V, Hu X, Li Q, Xu H, Wang Y, Matsui Y, Baumann J, Warner M. 2015. Physiological response to elevated temperature and pCO2 varies across four Pacic coral species: Understanding the unique host+symbiont response. Scientific Reports.

Hoadley K, Pettay D, Grottoli A, Cai W, Melman T, Levas S, Schoepf V, Ding Q, Yuan X, Wang Y,Matsui Y,Baumann J, Warner M. 2016. High temperature acclimation strategies within the thermally tolerant endosymbiont Symbiodinium trenchii and its coral host, Turbinaria reniformis, differ with changing pCO2 and nutrients. Marine Biology: International Journal on Life in Oceans and Coastal Waters.

Kim G. 2007. Trophic transfer of energy and polychlorinated biphenyls by native and exotic fish in Lake Erie. The Ohio State University. PhD dissertation: Columbus (OH).
• Set up 2 closed systems for Dr. Kim's study

Featured Articles/Media- Reef Systems Coral Farm, Inc

Murphy, K. 2016, February 18. Coral Reef Farm. Good Day Columbus (Television Program). Copeland A. 2008. OAA member brings new products to Ohio Aquaculture. Ohio Aquaculture

Association Newsletter. 9 (2), p. 3.
Heath, N. 2008. A greenhouse with an ocean twist (feature cover). 
Country Living, 50 (7), p. 14-15. 

Curet, M. 2007, February 8. Reef is what pair sows. The Columbus Dispatch, D1-D2.

Lawson, C. 2008, February 6. Our Ohio: Coral Reef Farm (Television Program Episode #313 & 323). Think TV/Ohio Communications, Inc: Columbus.

Lyttle E. 2007. Best of Columbus 2007: Reefer Farm. Columbus Monthly, 33 (7), p.45.
Williams, G.C. 2007, February 8. New kind of farm offers rare kind of 'produce'. 
New Albany This

Week, A1-A2.
Wray, J. 2007. Biz Buzz: Jimmy Buffet would be proud. 
Columbus CEO, 16 (4), p.5.

Updated 5/17/2020